Can you see the ghost in your eyes?

The camera was made based on the human eye. When a light comes in through a lens that acts as a lens, it is photographed by a sensor that acts as a retina to reproduce the image.

However, this is limited to normal objects. In the case of a ghost image it is impossible.

In the field of photography, ghost images refer to 'special images that look like shapes, but none of them are perfect, but they can not catch'.

To shoot these images with the camera, you need to install extremely sensitive lenses and sensors. Meanwhile, a team of professor Daniele Faccio, a physicist at the University of Sheffield, Scotland, has developed a camera to capture this ghost image.

"Eye-visual cells, ghost images clearly identify"

In 2015, the team developed a camera capable of capturing photons at a rate of 20 billion frames per second at a 32 × 32 grid. And three years later, I have uncovered a new fact about the human vision that has not been known.

According to the 'Live Science' on 18th, Professor Pachio's research paper is published in the archive (arXiv,, a preprint server for pre-publication, spooky "ability."

The title of the paper in the archive is 'Ghost imaging with the human eye'. "We can not identify the ghost image that is known to be capable of recognizing only a special camera, but it is possible with eyes," the research team said in a paper.

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"The human eye is able to identify all the subtle patterns of tremulous images that are changing indefinitely. It also has the ability to collect, store and replay the image information. "

To prove this, the researchers created a ghost image through a computer. After disassembling the image, the detailed pattern was superimposed on another pattern, creating a ghost image that was difficult to identify by various means.

And we observed whether the image could be identified with the human eye, and if so, to what extent the afterimage remained constant. Using state-of-the-art equipment, the team was able to instantly measure visual activity in 20 ms (millisecond, ms is a thousandth of a second).

Research has revealed a surprising fact. "Although the neurons in the brain did not recognize this ghost image, the human eye cell was aware of all patterns of ghost images and kept the collected visual information for a certain period of time," Professor Pachio explained.

"Brain's ability to perceive ghost images can not be recognized"

Scientists have been using lidar devices to create sophisticated images.

Lada first fires laser pulses on the object. After that, you can analyze the reflected light from the object and measure the distance to the object.

Through this process scientists were able to draw images precisely.

Professor Pacio added a new feature here. By extracting mathematical data from the object, it was possible to generate ghost-like images that were more ambiguous, motionless, and whose contrast and shape changed from time to time.

The researchers combined the tinted Einstein photograph with a plaid pattern called Hadamard patterns, numbers, and letters to create a ghost image. And the LED projector projected this image onto the screen.

The researchers then projected the ghost image quickly, observing how many people can identify these images while making various changes.

There is a refresh rate. It refers to the degree of blinking of the screen. The higher the scan rate, the sharper the color, and the smooth motion can be reproduced.

The researchers first set the refresh rate to at least one second and observed the eye's response. I remember only black-and-white checkerboards in my eyes, and I could not identify the images or numbers that Einstein's tongue came out of.

Next, I increased the refresh rate and started to rotate the images quickly. People began to clearly identify Einstein's stupid face as well as numbers and letters through his eyes.

Professor Pachio said, "The black and white grid pattern disappears from people's eyes, and with the face of Einstein, various numbers and after-images of letters start to appear clearly in greyscale." This indicates that the method of identifying the images is different according to the movement of the images.

Professor Pachio said, "The human eye has the ability to identify very fast movements." Even the fastest changing image has the ability to remember the afterimage for 20 ms (ms is a thousandth of a second).

"But this afterglow disappears slowly," Professor Pacio said. If another image is superimposed instantaneously, the new image is superimposed on the afterimage first, and images of various patterns are accumulated.

Professor Pachio said, "The power of the human eye was remarkable. Most of the ghost images of complex structures that are moving quickly were identified. " However, I do not think I can see these images due to lack of brain perception ability.

The paper containing the results of the study is now awaiting review through a peer-reviewed journal. Professor Pacio plans to study the process of how humans can see ghost images when this process is over.

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