How Hitler was to reach the Moon


Soon after, and more luck, the Nazi Empire could have driven us from the Moon. With the help of his scientists, Hitler could have reached the Moon. Especially with the help of one of the greatest scholars of the time. von Braun.

And history could have been rewritten. Wernher Magnus Maximilian Freiherr von Braun (1912- 1977) was an aerospace engineer and spacecraft architect. It was a prominent figure in German missile technology development. He was also the father of rocket technology and space science in the United States after the war.

He developed the Nazi Germany program for rocket development. He contributed to the development of the V2 missile design during the Second World War. During the war, von Braun was secretly moved to the United States, along with 1,600 German scientists, engineers and technicians. They were part of the so-called Paperclip Operation. He worked for the US Army for a special rocket that led to the launch of the first satellite in space. This was called Explorer 1.

His group of scientists were assimilated by NASA, the US space agency. Here he served as director of the new Marshall Space Center and as the chief architect of a vehicle to propel the Apollo spacecraft on the Moon. It was called Saturn V.

In 1975, von Braun received the National Medal for Science. He was also one of the first advocates of a mission on Mars.

During the war, when he helped create the rocket to bomb London, von Braun was sure he could reach the Moon. Her destiny and her missiles were to reach the moon. And finally, in the United States, the dream was achieved. If Hitler had time and vision, he could have reached the moon. He had the necessary resources and the best scientists in the world. America took advantage of these geniuses and offered them a service and purpose.
Missile Race: From War to Space

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Von Braun had a teenager in his childhood and developed a real passion for astronomy. His family moved to Berlin in 1915 and was inspired by the speed records of rocket-powered cars by Max Valier and Fritz von Opel. He made a similar layout and detonated it in the street. Attached artifacts have made a great show. Was arrested.

In 1930, von Braun enrolled in the Aerospace Society and witnessed missile testing. He wanted to learn more about physics, chemistry, astronomy, and entered the Berlin University for PhD in Physics. He will work and learn in Zurich for military missiles. But his dream will always remain in space.

It was influenced by weather heroes such as Auguste Picard, the pioneer of the high-altitude balloon flight, Hermann Oberth and others.

He enrolled in the Nazi party and then became a SS member, being promoted three times by Himmler. Von Braun always claimed that he did this, otherwise he would not have let him work on projects. Also, the SS was interested in missile technology.

In 1939, German scientists discussed with American physicist Robert H. Goddard, a pioneer of research. Von Braun used Goddard's plans and built the Aggregat A rocket series A. Racheta A-4 will become known to the world as V-2.

Peenemunde, the Baltic Sea rocket hangar

Near the Baltic Sea, the Nazis built a huge rocket factory. Von Braun will be here technical director. He will collaborate with Nazi aircraft, Luftwaffe, developing rocket engines for airplanes and missiles. They also developed ballistic missiles and Wasserfall supersonic anti-aircraft missiles.

On December 22, 1942, impressed by advances in technology, Adolf Hitler ordered the production of A-4 rockets as "weapons of revenge." The Peenemunde group was supposed to shuffle London. Hitler had been really impressed by von Braun's film showing the take-off of an A-4 missile.

Until that time, the Soviet and British intelligence agencies knew about the missile program. They also knew what was happening at Peenemunde because of the information provided by the Polish Liberation Army. On the night of August 17-18, 1943, British aviation begins Operation Hydra. It was about bombing complexes with 596 planes and 1800 tons of explosives. Fortunately, the factory has resisted, and most of the engineers have remained unharmed. However, the air raid killed engine designer von Braun, Walter Thiel and chief engineer Walther. And the program was delayed.

Von Braun: "The missiles worked perfectly, just landed on the wrong planet"

The first A-4 combat rocket, renamed V-2 (from Vergeltungswaffe - revenge) was launched to England on September 7, 1944. Only 21 months after the start of the program. Von Braun's dream suffered a change. He wanted his rockets to travel in space, not to kill people. After hearing the news about London, von Braun said: "The rockets worked perfectly, just landed on the wrong planet."

Experiments for space rockets continue at Kummersdorf. In 1937, a plane was piloted just pushed by the power of von Braun's rocket. At the same time, Hellmuth Walter's experiments with hydrogen rockets were working properly. So, Germany also had von Braun's rockets based on alcohol and liquid oxygen. The former used hot catalysts and vapors from the chemical reaction, and von Braun used direct combustion.

Various projects and missiles used slaves, including concentration camps, such as Auschwitz.

In 1943, when problems arose, Arthur Rudolph, chief engineer at V-2 factory in Peenemunde, supported the idea of ​​using slave labor. More people have died working on this missile than died when used as a weapon. The bear used here had 20,000 deaths from diseases, beatings, hangings, hard work conditions. French prisoners even argued that von Braun was giving saboteur hanging orders.

Also, von Braun was caught in Heinrich Himmler's net. He wanted to get his hands on all Nazi weapons programs, including Peenemunde's V-2 rocket program. Soon, von Braun and his team were placed under the supervision of the SS. The displaced comments made about the purpose of the missiles plus Himmler's charges led to the arrest of von Braun by the Gestapo. Himmler's charges were related to the sabotage of the V-2 program and the fact that he was a Communist.

He was taken to Poland for two weeks. The interventions of the commander at Peenemunde and the war minister near Hitler have escaped him. Von Braun will continue the project and V-2 turns into V-4.

The American Space Agency and Nazi scientists

America's post-war opportunism had no limits. They took the best Nazi scientists and integrated them into NASA. People who had already made stunning discoveries. So, in a very short time, America became the first in the space race thanks to the effort and intelligence brought from Germany.

In the spring of 1945, the Soviet army was 160 km from the Peenemunde complex. Von Braun took all his plans and decided to surrender to the Americans. So he did documents and transported 500 team members to Mittelwerk. For fear that his sketches would be destroyed, he hid them in a mine in the Harz Mountains.

After all, the SS tracked them down and came under surveillance in the Bavarian Alps. The officers who guarded them were ordered to execute them if they were falling into the enemy's hands. Eventually, von Braun and several engineers arrived in Austria. Here, they found the American army. Brother von Braun's brother, Magnus said, "My name is Magnus von Braun. My brother invented the V-2. I do not want to sell! "

The Americans were surprised by the discovery. Eventually, von Braun was at the forefront of the Black List, code name used for the list of German ingenuers and rocket experts. Von Braun and his were then interrogated at Dustbin, the interrogation center at Kransberg Castle, where the Nazi elite was brought for interrogations.

In 1943, when problems arose, Arthur Rudolph, chief engineer at V-2 factory in Peenemunde, supported the idea of ​​using slave labor. More people have died working on this missile than died when used as a weapon. The bear used here had 20,000 deaths from diseases, beatings, hangings, hard work conditions. French prisoners even argued that von Braun was giving saboteur hanging orders.

Also, von Braun was caught in Heinrich Himmler's net. He wanted to get his hands on all Nazi weapons programs, including Peenemunde's V-2 rocket program. Soon, von Braun and his team were placed under the supervision of the SS. The displaced comments made about the purpose of the missiles plus Himmler's charges led to the arrest of von Braun by the Gestapo. Himmler's charges were related to the sabotage of the V-2 program and the fact that he was a Communist.

He was taken to Poland for two weeks. The interventions of the commander at Peenemunde and the war minister near Hitler have escaped him. Von Braun will continue the project and V-2 turns into V-4.

The American Space Agency and Nazi scientists

America's post-war opportunism had no limits. They took the best Nazi scientists and integrated them into NASA. People who had already made stunning discoveries. So, in a very short time, America became the first in the space race thanks to the effort and intelligence brought from Germany.

In the spring of 1945, the Soviet army was 160 km from the Peenemunde complex. Von Braun took all his plans and decided to surrender to the Americans. So he did documents and transported 500 team members to Mittelwerk. For fear that his sketches would be destroyed, he hid them in a mine in the Harz Mountains.

After all, the SS tracked them down and came under surveillance in the Bavarian Alps. The officers who guarded them were ordered to execute them if they were falling into the enemy's hands. Eventually, von Braun and several engineers arrived in Austria. Here, they found the American army. Brother von Braun's brother, Magnus said, "My name is Magnus von Braun. My brother invented the V-2. I do not want to sell! "

The Americans were surprised by the discovery. Eventually, von Braun was at the forefront of the Black List, code name used for the list of German ingenuers and rocket experts. Von Braun and his were then interrogated at Dustbin, the interrogation center at Kransberg Castle, where the Nazi elite was brought for interrogations.

But the first time they were interrogated by the British under the leadership of L.S. engineer. Snell. He will become chief designer for Rolls Royce and inventor of the Concorde engine program.

It was not until 1945 that the American public learned about the integration of Nazi scientists into the US. They were brought to Fort Bliss, north of El Paso. Von Braun's team attracted the critics of Albert Einstein and John Dingell. In the Hermes project, von Braun's team managed to launch V-2 missiles in New Mexico.

In 1950, at the beginning of the Korean War, von Braun and his team were transferred to Alabama. This will be his home for 20 years. Between 1952 and 1956, von Braun made the Redstone rocket, used for the first nuclear ballistic missile test in the US. This has led to the development of the first precise guidance mechanism.

The Redstone rocket has led to the development of Jupiter-C. It sent the first Space Explorer, Explorer-1, on January 31, 1958. This led to the birth of the US space program.

But all this time, 1945-1957, the Russians were going ahead with the Sputnik program, and the Americans were not too convinced of it.

Sending people in space: Sputnik versus NASA

Von Braun continues to dream of space exploration. So he tried to popularize the idea. Newspapers wrote about it as if it were SF.

In 1952, von Braun first published his concept of a space station. The station was to be built with reusable rockets in the form of a spinning wheel around the shaft. The station would have turned to provide artificial gravity. A station in orbit at 1730 km from Earth. The platform would have been used for monthly shipments.

Much later, books and movies, even 2001: A space odyssey, have been heavily influenced by this concept. Von Braun thought this project with 50 astronauts traveling in three huge spaceships, two for the crew, one for the cargo. Each ship was 49 meters long and 33 meters in diameter, driven by 30 rocket propulsion engines. Upon arrival, astronauts had to establish a permanent monthly base in the Sinus Roris region. They had to use rockets as homes for eight weeks. That would include a 400-kilometer journey into pressurized rope in the Harpalus crater and other areas of the Moon.

At the same time, von Braun also imagines the first concept of a human journey on Mars. His first project in 1952 imagines a fleet of ten spacecraft, each of 3720 tons, with nine vehicles each with 70 astronauts. The mission parameters were very clearly calculated. Von Braun even wrote a SF novel in this sense, rejected by 18 publications. Von Braun also worked with Walt Disney and his studios for space exploration films. These, released in 1955, attracted over 40 million viewers.

The space flight began because of the success of the Russians with Sputnik 1. The Vanguard missile of the Americans had made a mistake.

NASA's birth and first crew on the Moon

NASA was created on July 29, 1958. A year later, the 50th Redstone rocket was successfully launched. Two years later, NASA opened the Marshall Aerospace Center in Alabama.

The first Mercury-Redstone missile was a disaster. There was another disaster with Mercury-Redstone 2. So we went on developing the Saturn missile program.

This is where the Apollo program left, the Moon flight with a crew of four people. At the beginning, Wernher von Braun wanted to use the concept of "orbit meeting", that is, the one used for the space station. But eventually they decided on the flight and moonlighting directly on the moon.

The dream became reality on July 16, 1969, when Saturn V launched the Apollo 11 crew into an eight-day historic mission.

Mercury-Redstone BD had been successful, but instead of this flight, Alan Shepard could reach space three weeks before Yuri Gagarin. Sputnik program manager Sergei Korolev insisted on two dog flights before sending Gagarin.

Von Braun and his vision were long before his time. He also invented the idea of ​​the Stabile Camp, a place where children could learn about science and space.

Von Braun will leave NASA and become vice president of engineering at Fairchild Industries. He will promote the National Space Institute and become a member of the Daimler-Benz board.

Films inspired by von Braun and his vision: Man in Space, I aim at the Stars, From the Earth to the Moon, October Sky, Space Race, The Last von Braun, The Good German by Joseph Kanon, Space de James Michener, Gravity's Rainbow by Thomas Pynchon, VS Day by Allen Steele, Moonglow by Michael Chabon.



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