Astronomy in different Civilisations

Astronomy is one of the oldest known sciences. In the absence of pollution caused by industrial lighting, the night was dark, illuminated only by the moon and the stars. The ancient Egyptians were very knowledgeable about astronomy, and they used it to build temples and pyramids and to measure the length of the year by which the flood of the Nile was determined. As for the civilizations of Babylon and Assyria, they were rich in astronomical information. They recorded the lunar eclipse, measured its course, knew its virtual movement, and worshiped the seven planets. As the planets appear to the viewer moving between the stars, so the oldest (stars) called them stars, Between them and the planets. The civilizations of China, India and the Arabs before Islam recorded history of various astronomical works. The Greek civilization was characterized by the philosophical nature, where some ideas about the rotation of objects in the sky and is the sun the center of the universe or Earth? And other that the universe is greater than the world known many times and that the stars and the sun are located in the middle of the sky.

When Islam came, there was a tremendous development in the period of prosperity of the Islamic state, because of the connection of astronomy to religion in terms of worship to calculate the times of prayer and identify the early months of the Arab or to understand some of the universal verses where God urged believers in various places to look at the sky and think in its verses, The creation of the heavens and the earth and the difference of the night and the day are signs for the first of the hearts.

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The Muslims also translated books, revised them and corrected them, and put them in books that included tables and information called al-Azayaj. They put a lot of bases and important astronomical rules. They proved the rotation of the earth and the planets around the sun. Ways to calculate the beginning of the Arab months and control the Hijri calendar, and conducted scientific experiments to calculate the latitude and longitude of the various Islamic cities and much more.

In his book "The Entrance to the History of Science," George Sarten says: The research done by Arabs and Muslims in the field of astronomy was very useful, as it is the fact that paved the way for the great astronomical renaissance that flourished under Kepler And (Copernic), says (Shakat) in his book (history of mathematics): Measurements of Arab scientists and Muslims in astronomy were to a large extent healthier than the measurements of Greece.

We have been influenced by the language and civilization of the West's scientific progress. We have introduced some foreign words in our language, which is the same and the sense that the West had in the Middle Ages towards Muslims, where they took care of the Arabic language and introduced some Arabic names in their translations.

In modern civilization, man has been able to develop monitoring methods so that he has the ability to monitor and recognize galaxies. He has been successful in studying the universe to find out what it is, and to make spacecraft travel through space between the planets of the solar system.

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