Astronomers have discovered an exoplanet with an orbital period of 27,000 years



Each planet in our solar system has a significantly different circulation period around the sun. For example, if the Earth has a revolution around the star that takes 365.25 days, it takes about twice as much time for the same March - 686.97 days. In Jupiter and other gas giants in the system, the orbital period varies even more, ranging from 11.86 years to 164.8 years. But even with this in mind, astronomers were not entirely aware of the fact that there are also such systems, such as CVSO 30.

In this star system, which is around 1200 light years from Earth, the astronomers have discovered two candidates for exoplanets. If both objects are found, each of the masses being several times larger than the Jupiter mass, the international group of astronomers used a transit as well as a direct observation method. The researchers found that while the orbital period on a planet is less than 11 days, another planet makes a complete revolution around its star only once in 27,000 (twenty five thousand) years!

Interestingly, this discovery is not only because it could surprise researchers, but also because when you discovered planets in one system, several different search methods were used at the same time.

So far, most of the more than 2,000 discovered exoplanets have been found by indirect observation methods. This is mainly about the so-called transit method of observation that allows to determine the presence of the planet by observing the change in the brightness of the star arising from the plane's passage in front of its star as at the angular velocity measurement method, which allows to detect a planet at to uncover the gravity effects it carries on the star.

So, one of the planets in this system - CVSO 30b - a mass of 5-6 times the mass of Jupiter was discovered by astronomers in 2012 using a transit method of observation. Researchers have found that the planet is at a distance of 1.2 million kilometers from the star (for comparison: the same mercury is 58 million kilometers from the sun). Researchers describe the planet as "hot jupiter".

The method of direct observation is used in turn by astronomers much less often. Until now, with the help of that, only a few exoplanets have been discovered. The reason for this is that the light reflected from the atmosphere on the planet is usually not light enough and fuses against the background to the light of its native star, making observation difficult. In addition, this method is very demanding for the use of very high quality and high precision equipment. Yet, compared to indirect search methods, it can be more effective when observing objects located in remote areas of their star systems.

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Thanks to the international efforts of the international team of astronomers using the Keck Observatory telescope on the island of Hawaii, discovered the huge telescope of the European Southern Observatory in Chile, as well as the strength of the Spanish Observatory Calar Alto, the planet CVSO 30c, located in a distance of about 666 astronomical units from its star.

Details of this discovery are published in the online library Arxiv.org. In this article, researchers who represented such prestigious institutions as the inter-American observatory Cerro Tololo, Jena Observatory, the European Space Agency and Max Planck Institute for Astronomy of Astronomy told about the methods they used to open the exoplanet and explained the importance of this discovery.

"[Items 30b and 30c] are very unusual in themselves. The CVSO 30b is the first exoplanet discovered by the transit method, whose age is only 2.5 million years. It was first described in 2012. All the other planets discovered on The same way was much older. A few hundred million years. It turned out to be a real surprise for us that she has a planetary neighbor who is at least 662 astronomical units from the star, which equals 662 distances from Earth to Sun, while having a mass of only 0.4 from the solar system 1. According to the standard model, planets from the disk surrounding the star are formed. However, we have never seen a large enough disk near such a small mass for the formation of such an object, explains project manager and staff at the University of Hamburg, as well as Jena observatory Tobias Schmidt.

In other words, this means that astronomers had not expected to find two exoplanets with many times the Jupiter mass wrapped around such a small star as CVSO 30. However, the discovery of two exoplanets with such a difference in the distance between them and their star proved to be even more surprising to researchers.

Using an extremely high contrast photometric and spectroscopic observation data using the Very Large Telescope, Keck Telescope and Kalar Alto Observatory, an international research group was able to detect the CVSO 30c planet using the so-called Lucky Imaging system. The system automatically selects only those frames in the same part of the sky that were achieved at such rare happy moments as the distortions from the atmosphere were minimal.

As a result, researchers found an exoplanet with a very wide lane and a lot 4-5 times larger than Jupiter. In fact, it turned out that the planet is also very young. Its age is less than 10 million years. Furthermore, the spectroscopic data indicated its very unusual blue color, while the majority of the remaining candidates in the exoplanets were usually represented in the red spectral area.

Researchers find that the CVSO 30c is the youngest planet in this class, which also managed to be detected directly. A further CVSO 30c study showed that it is most likely the first discovered "transit object of the L-T class", whose age is less than 10 million years. Usually, brown dwarves are referred to the transit objects of the L-T class - objects that are too big to be considered a planet, and at the same time too small for them to be considered stars. As a rule, they are surrounded by massive clouds of gas and dust or without any environment.

The researchers suggest that the CVSO 30c exoplanet, paired with the planet CVSO 30b (which is unbelievably close to the star in the same system), probably originally formed elsewhere, and ultimately deviated significantly from the star. At least other guesses, the models of the planet formation we have, unfortunately do not provide. Professor Schmidt notes, however, that this assumption at least tries to explain the absolute strange nature of these exoplanets.

The importance of finding is also linked to this being the first time when two methods of observation - transit and direct - were used to search for planets within a system. And in this case both methods proved useful.

    "The transit method and method of measuring radial velocities have disadvantages, for example, it is not possible to find planets near young stars, as the increasing activity of young stars creates problems in observations. CVSO 30b was the first and the youngest planet discovered by these methods The method of direct observation is, in turn, best suited for search and exploration of young planets as they only complete the process of their final formation and therefore provide enough of their own light for observation. We were very fortunate that we were able to find a planet that is very close to the star in the same system, except for an outer planet very far from our star. "

    "The real benefit of the simultaneous use of the transit method and the method of direct observation is that the observations in this case become more detailed. We hope to learn more about the nature of its formation and in particular to determine how such systems are generally formed, concludes Schmidt.

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