Astronomers decided one of the mysteries of brown dwarfs


The dark celestial body called a brown dwarf is smaller in mass than our sun, but huge than the gass giant Jupiter. They have an atmosphere with a strong wind and a spotted large cloud, mainly composed of molten iron and droplets of silicate dust. It has recently been confirmed that these huge clouds accumulate very quickly (in less than one day of the earth) and dissipate as soon as possible. But researchers do not understand why this is happening.

In the framework of a new analysis of the data collected using the Spitzer Space Telescope, an international scientific team creates a model to explain how brown dwarf clouds move and change their shape I made it. The huge waves created by these objects cause very large movements of the atmospheric particles of brown dwarfs and change the thickness of the silicate clouds. This was reported by scientists on the Science journal page. Also assume that these clouds accumulate together at different heights and move at different speeds and directions.

    "I first observed the air flow and waves of brown dwarfs," said Associate Professor Daniel Apay of the Astronomy and Planetary School at the University of Arizona.

Waves, as well as oceans and oceans, as well as the planet's atmosphere, may form not only water, but also. When we take away the planet, a very long wave mixes the cold air of the polar region with the mid-latitude atmosphere, which often leads to the appearance and dispersion of clouds.

The distribution and migration of brown dwarf clouds covered by this study were most similar to those observed in Jupiter, Saturn and Neptune. The latter also has several airflows moving in the opposite direction, but they consist mainly of ice. The key to this comparison of planets and brown dwarfs was the observation of Neptune by the Kepler Space Telescope.

Mark Murry, co-researcher at NASA's Ames research center, says: "The atmospheric wind of the brown dwarf is not the formation of a chaotic atmosphere that is observed in the sun and many other stars,

A brown dwarf can be regarded as a failed star because its mass is too small to support the chemical reaction of the elements of the nucleus. However, since they are huge than Jupiter, they can be thought of as "hyperplanes", but the diameters are almost the same. Like a gas giant, brown dwarfs consist mainly of hydrogen and helium, but are often found outside the planetary system. In 2014, as part of a research using the Spitzer Space Telescope, scientists discovered that atmospheric storms are often furious with brown dwarfs.

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Because of its similarity to a giant outer planet, brown dwarfs can be windows to other planetary systems. At the same time, these objects are much easier to learn, as they are commonly seen in outpatients, usually because there are actually no bright stars next to them and it is difficult to observe.

    "The flow and waves of the atmosphere we found in brown dwarfs can happen just like the more ordinary gigantic outer planets," added Apaie.

Using 'Spitzer', scientists observed the change in light intensity of 6 brown dwarfs for nearly a year and a half and witnessed 32 rotations around their respective axes. When the brown dwarf rotates, the cloud appears or disappears in the hemisphere, subsequently the telescope observes it and the brightness changes. This allowed scientists to analyze the changes in these lights and see how the distribution of silicate clouds in the atmosphere of such objects would look like.

To date, scientists have assumed that a brown dwarf has an elliptical storm resembling Jupiter's great red spots, caused and maintained by the high pressure zone. The spot has been on Jupiter for 100 years, and it has hardly changed during this time. However, such "spots" can not explain the rapid change in brightness observed by scientists in studying brown dwarfs. This change was observed less than once a day.

In order to reach the truth scientists had to rethink their premise. And the best model to explain such behaviors and sharp changes in lightness was a model describing the huge atmospheric wave that appears at different intervals. These waves rotate the ambient current in the opposite direction. A supercomputer and a new computer algorithm will help researchers at the University of Arizona and create a map of brown dwarf cloud movements.

    "When the peaks of the two waves shift, two points of maximum brightness are observed all day, and when the waves are synchronized, one peak of brightness (one wave) is obtained and the brown dwarf is twice brighter .

These results fully explain the strange brightness changes previously observed by scientists in the study of brown dwarfs. The next step is an attempt to better understand what generates exactly the waves that cause atmospheric mass motion of these objects.

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