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Top 10 most interesting languages ​​in the world



There are thousands of languages ​​spoken on Earth, their exact number unknown, but somewhere between 6,000 and 7,000. These range from millions of people - English, French, Spanish, etc. - to those spoken only by a handful of people. It is almost impossible and even ignorant to choose only a few that I can catalog as interesting, all of which are interesting and unique in their own way. But I have to try, so here are some examples:

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10. Finnish

Finnish is a Finno-Ugric language and is spoken by about 6,000,000 people, most of whom live in Finland. One of the most common mistakes for Finnish is that it would be similar to the Swedish, Danish and Norwegian "neighbor" languages ​​- it is not. Of course there are cultural overlaps between the four Scandinavian countries, but linguistic overlaps are limited to only three of them. Finnish is a completely independent language, coming from the Uralian family rather than the Indo-European language. Finnish is extremely complicated, with 14 different cases for different grammatical situations, and very difficult to learn from the rest of the peoples compared to the Scandinavian ones. It also sounds significantly different from other European languages ​​and has no close relationship with any of them. The only similarities are with Hungarian and Estonian.

9. Basque language

Basque is spoken by approximately 1.1 million people, most of them in northeastern Spain and southwest France. It would be thought to be related to Spanish or French, but it does not relate to any of the two languages ​​or any other language spoken in that area of ​​the Pyrenees. Linguists try to find similar to many languages ​​- African, Caucasian, Etruscan and even Japanese - but they have only been able to find similar words without finding any conclusive results. Other specialists believe the Basque language is part of a family of languages ​​that preceded the Indo-European languages, being spoken in prehistoric times. It's a very interesting language to study, but terribly hard to learn.

8. Friulana

Another European language that is very different from neighboring languages. Speaking in northeastern Italy, it has a few similarities to Italian, but it also uses special characters found in French such as "ç", "î" or "ì". Friulana is spoken by about 600,000 people, most of whom are also speakers of Italian. Unlike her "sister" - the lady (not to be confused with the Latin!), Which is spoken by only 30,000 people - the much more popular friulana.

7. Ongota

Ongota (also known as Birale) is a language of extinction spoken in a village on the west bank of the Weito River in Ethiopia. Linguists believe that this language is of African-Asian origin, but this has not been proven yet. Currently, Ongota is spoken by about 10 people, all elders, hence the danger of extinction in the near future. There is no written form of this language. but linguists strive to keep it alive for future generations.

6. Esperanto

In some ways, this language is the opposite of those of Ongota - not a language of extinction, but an artificial one, the most widespread of this kind. Esperanto was launched in 1887 by Jewish philologist Ludovic Lazar Zamenhof as a universal language and borrowed elements from all European languages. Esperanto was adopted by the artificial island of Rose Island (an Adriatic petroleum platform), but it has never become the official language anywhere. However, it is estimated that Esperanto is spoken by 100,000-2,000,000 people.

5. Breton tongue

Another language that has no resemblance to neighboring languages, Breton is spoken by the inhabitants of the Brittany region in northern France. Unlike French, which is a Romance language (neolithic), the Breton language is part of the Celtic language family. From a phonetic point of view, Breton is very similar to Cornish language (Cornish language language) and Welsh (Wales). From the 1950s to the beginning of the 21st century, the number of Breton speakers has fallen by 20%, and at present it is very likely that there is no native speaker, most of which speak French as a native language.

4. Klingoniana

Like Esperanto, Klingon is an invented language, but unlike the first, Klingon is spoken by the Klingon alien race in the Star Trek fiction universe. Nothing unusual so far, in most SF movies and serials, races of aliens have their own language, but the Klingon has come to a whole different level: it has been created and developed in a veritable language with its own grammar and phonetics by the linguist Marc Okrand. One of the unique features of this language is the plural form different from the singular form of the nouns (eg singular: "jengva" - plate, plural: "ngop" - plates). There are no native speakers of this language (except the fanatical geeks of the Star Trek universe), but even so, Klingon is an interesting linguistic phenomenon.

3. Ayapa Zoque

Ayapa Zoque, a Mexican-Mexican family of Mexican-Mexican native languages, almost disappears in the village of Ayapa, a village 10 km east of Comalcalco, the state of Tabasco in south-eastern Mexico. When I speak, I mean the last two native speakers of the language - both are old, but they refuse to talk to each other. Thus, the language still exists theoretically, but it is not used anywhere else in the world. Linguist Daniel Suslak of the University of Indiana is keen to keep this lively language, but the two elders refuse to talk for even academic purposes. Despite Suslak's efforts, there is no written version of Ayapa Zoque. No one knows why the two are dismayed so much that they would like to leave their tongue to die rather than to speak.

2. Piraha

This language is spoken by the Amazonian tribe with the same name living near the river Maisi, Brazil. Pirah is part of the Amazonian family, being the only one still spoken. No one understood this language until the American Evangelical Church sent a young linguist, Daniel Everret, to the Amazon basin. He lived among Pirahã for 30 years. "This language is unique, nothing like it is on Earth," says Everett. The language has 7 consonants and 3 vowels and does not have personal pronouns. There are no great differences between verbs and nouns, and in general, all the norms with which we are accustomed here do not exist. The Pirahis tribe knows neither the figures, but only two concepts: "a few" and "many". There are currently around 300 tribe members, the only speakers of the Pirah language, but they do not think they are a small people, 300 are "many", just like 7 billion are "many" - "you are many we are many ".

1. Taushiro

And the winner is ... Taushiro language! This is spoken near the Tigris and Aucayacu rivers, near Ecuador, by one person! This person is Amadeo Garcia and is the only Taushiro speaker in the world, even though he lives in a village with 20 others. Linguists have found no resemblance to other South American or any other languages, being considered an isolated language. The number system is limited to 1 to 10, and for larger numbers, the speaker uses his fingers and toes. Language is considered to be extinct, but linguists want to keep it alive after the death of the last speaker.

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