25 things about Mercury

1. Mercury is the planet closest to the Sun and the smallest of the Solar System (18 times smaller than the Earth);

2. Mercury has a diameter of 4,879 km, almost 2.5 times smaller than Earth's;

3. Mercury has an almost non-existent atmosphere in which sodium and potassium are found and low amounts of oxygen, argon, helium, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and hydrogen;

4. Mercury performs a complete rotation around the Sun in 88 days, moving in orbit at a speed of about 50 km / s, being the fastest planet in the Solar System;

5. Even if it rotates once every 59 days, a day on Mercury takes 176 days;

6. At Mercury's surface, temperatures range from -173 to 427 degrees Celsius, averaging 179 degrees Celsius;

7. Under the crust of 100-200 km thick, Mercury has a large iron core (3,600 km diameter) that generates a magnetic field of about 100 times lower than that of Earth;

8. Before his first mission to Mercury, his surface was thought to be smooth;

9. Between 1974 and 1975, the Mariner 10 spacecraft mapped 40-45% of the surface of the planet Mercury, being the only spacecraft that approached the planet;

10. Mariner 10 discovered that Mercury resembles the Moon, having the surface cracked by craters coming from the "bombardment" of asteroids and comets, a phenomenon that has now ceased 3.8 billion years;

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11. On August 3, 2004, NASA launched the Messenger probe to Mercury; it reached the orbit of the planet on April 4, 2011; the mission of the probe is to study Mercury's chemical composition, geology and magnetic field;

12. Mercury was first observed by the Sumerians about 5,000 years ago;

13. Mercury is geologically inactive for billions of years, from this point of view, being the least understood planet among the tellurian planets;

14. In the mercurian sky, the Sun appears 2.5 times higher than Earth's sky;

15. 13 times per century, Mercury can be observed from Earth as it passes through the face of the Sun, an astronomical phenomenon called transit; the next visible transit on Earth will take place on May 9, 2016;

16. Due to the lack of atmosphere, the mercurian sky is black, and probably stars are visible during the day;

17. If on Earth a man would weigh 60 pounds, Mercury would weigh about 22 pounds;

18. Mercury has the greatest orbital eccentricity (the deviation of the elliptical orbit) of all the planets of the Solar System, its distance from the Sun ranging from 46 to 70 million km;

19. Although it is the smallest planet in the Solar System, it is the second as the Earth's density, a cubic centimeter with a density of 5.4 grams; this is due to the composition of Mercury from rocks and metals;

20. Although it is the closest planet to the Sun, it is the second warmest, the first being Venus;

21. Mercury was baptized after the Roman god Mercurius; in Romanian mythology this was a messenger of the gods;

22. Due to its proximity to the Sun (3 times closer than the Earth), Mercury is visible from Earth just after sunrise and sunset;

23. Mercury has no natural satellite;

24. Although it is so close to the Sun in 1991, astronomers have discovered with the help of certain radars that ice may have poles hidden in deep, shadowy craters;

25. Mercury is 100 times closer to the Sun than Pluto's dwarf planet;

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