25 things about Jupiter


1. Jupiter is the largest planet in the Solar System;

2. Jupiter is 318 times larger than Earth and has a volume of 1,321 times greater; although it is giant compared to the Earth, Jupiter has only one fifth of its density due to its composition;

3. Jupiter is a gaseous planet, consisting of hydrogen (90%) and helium (10%), resembling from this point of view with a miniature star;

4. Scientists believe that Jupiter has a nucleus made of metallic hydrogen covered by a molecular hydrogen layer, but nothing concrete has been discovered so far; it is estimated that the core temperature is approximately 35,300 degrees Kelvin (~ 30,000 degrees Celsius), 7 times hotter than the Sun's surface;

5. Jupiter has an average radius of about 70,000 km, about a tenth of that of the Sun, and an equatorial diameter of 142,984 km, of 11.2 greater than that of the Earth;

6. One day on Jupiter lasts only 9.9 hours, and one year lasts for 4,333 days, that is almost 12 years;

7. The average distance from Jupiter to the Sun is 778,547,199 km;

8. Due to the very large distance from the Sun, the heat received from it is almost negligible, Jupiter warming itself virtually alone, emitting heat from within by convection between liquid and plasma hydrogen;

9. Although Jupiter is like a star, it does not have enough energy to begin fusion of hydrogen with helium, the process that feeds a star; in order to be considered as a star "in good order", Jupiter should have been 75-80 times higher; some astronomers believe that Jupiter is really a "starving" star; others think that Jupiter will "light up" one day, destroying the Earth;

10. The average temperature at Jupiter's surface is -145 degrees Celsius;

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11. Jupiter has a mass of 2.5 times greater than all other planets in the Solar System gathered;

12. One of the most well-known aspects of the planet Jupiter is the Red Sea, the oval three times the Earth, with a length of about 40,000 km; this is a region where the pressure is very high, and the higher clouds are taller and cooler than in the neighboring areas; scientists believe the Red Sea is a storm that is falling at a very slow pace, but I do not know if it will ever disappear; this was first observed 300 years ago by Robert Hooke;

13. Jupiter has its own "solar system", with 67 known satellites, the most famous being Europe, Io, Ganymede and Calisto; the four satellites were discovered by Galileo Galilei in 1610, being called Galilean satellites;

14. Europe is the smaller Galilean satellite of Jupiter, being slightly smaller than the Moon; the surface of Europe is completely frozen and scientists believe that ice is found in liquid water and even frozen bodies; a future mission will check these hypotheses;

15. Io is considered the most active object in the Solar System, from a geological point of view, with over 400 active volcanoes; is nicknamed "pizza planet" due to color; Unlike the other ice-formed satellites, Io is a fully silicated stone;

15. Ganymede is the largest satellite in the Solar System; it is larger than Mercury and Pluto and twice as hard as the Moon; it is made up of rocks and ice;

16. Calisto is the third largest satellite in the Solar System, after Ganymede and Titan (Saturn's largest satellite); is composed of rock and ice;

17. Like Saturn, and Jupiter has rings, but much smaller and pale; they were discovered in 1979 by Voyager 2;

18. Unlike the other planets, Jupiter emits radios that can be detected from Earth;

19. Jupiter was first observed by Babylonian astronomers in the 7th-8th centuries BC;

20. Jupiter was named after the king of the Roman gods; was also known as Zeus and Marduk;

21. It is the third most luminous object in the Solar System (except the Sun), after Venus and the Moon;

22. Colored bands on the surface of Jupiter were created by strong winds (~ 650 km / h), with East-West direction;

23. Although it is a gaseous planet, Jupiter's magnetic field is about 20,000 times more powerful than Earth's;

24. Jupiter was first visited in 1973 by NASA's Pioneer 10 probe;

25. On serene nights, Jupiter can be seen with the naked eye, moreover, it is one of the brightest objects in the sky;

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