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    Thursday, November 30, 2017

    Top 10 interesting facts about volcanoes

    Some of these facts are known to you, others may surprise you. In any case, volcanoes have amazing character traits that deserve respect.

    1. There are three main types of volcanoes

    Although all volcanoes consist of hot magma, reaching the surface of the Earth and erupting, they come in different forms. Thyroid volcanoes are distinguished by lava flows with low viscosity, which spread to tens of kilometers; this makes them very wide with smoothly beveled edges. Stratovolcanoes consist of different types of lava, spewing ash and stones and grow to huge heights. Slag cones, as a rule, are smaller, and are characterized by short eruptions.

    2. Volcanoes erupt in magma, escaping from the earth's crust

    About 30 km under your feet is the mantle of the Earth. This is an area of ​​super-hot stone, which extends to the core of the Earth. This region is so hot that molten rock can form giant bubbles, called magmatic foci. This magma is lighter than the surrounding rocks, so it rises, finding cracks and weaknesses in the earth's crust. When it finally reaches the surface, it breaks out of the earth like lava, ash, volcanic gases and rocks. This is called magma, when it is underground, and lava when it breaks to the surface.

    3. Volcanoes can be active, asleep or extinct

    The active volcano is the one that was a volcano in historical times (the last several thousand years). A sleeping volcano is one that erupted in historical times and has the potential to break out again; he just did not erupt recently. An extinct volcano is one that, according to scientists, will not erupt again.

     4. Volcanoes can grow rapidly

    Although some volcanoes are formed thousands of years, others can grow during the night. For example, the slag cone Parikutin appeared on the Mexican corn field on February 20, 1943. Within a week reached 5 floors and by the end of the year it grew to more than 336 meters in height. He finished growing in 1952, reaching 424 meters. By the standards of geology, it's pretty quick.

    5. There are 20 active volcanoes right now

    There are about 20 volcanic eruptions in the world, while you are reading this. 50-70 volcanoes erupted last year, 160 were active during the last decade. Geologists believe that 1,300 eruptions happened in the last 10,000 years. Three quarters of all eruptions occurred in the ocean. If we add underwater volcanoes, we will get a total of about 6,000 volcanoes erupting in the last 10,000 years.

     6. Volcanoes are dangerous

    But this is understandable. The most deadly volcanoes are Krakatau, whose eruption in 1883 created a tsunami that killed 36,000 people. When Vesuvius exploded in 79 AD, he buried the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum, killing 16,000 people. Sang, on the island of Martinique, destroyed a city with 30,000 of its inhabitants in 1902, pyroclastic flows of lava destroyed Saint Pierre - the largest city on the island.

    7. Supervolcanoes are really dangerous

    Geologists measure volcanic eruptions on the scale of the volcanic explosive index (VEI), which measures the amount of released material. The largest eruption belongs to Toba, which is believed to have begun 73,000 years ago. More than 1,000 cubic kilometers of material were released. The eruption plunged the world into a worldwide ice age. Toba is believed to have reached the 8th VEI mark.

    8. The highest volcano in the solar system is not on Earth

    The highest volcano in the solar system is on Mars. Olympus Mons on Mars is a giant volcano that rises to a height of 27 km and covers 550 km across. Scientists believe that Olympus turned out so large, because there are no tectonic plates on Mars.

     9. The highest and largest volcano on Earth are neighbors with each other

    The highest volcano on Earth is Mauna Kea, Hawaii, 4,207 meters high. It is only slightly larger than the largest volcano on Earth, Mauna Loa, with a height of 4,169 meters. Both volcanoes are thyroid, rising from the ocean floor. If Mauna Kea could be estimated from its very beginning at the bottom of the ocean, we will get its true height - 10 203 meters (and this is more than Mount Everest).

     10. The most remote point from the center of the Earth is the volcano

    You think that the summit of Mount Everest is the most remote point from the center of the Earth, but it is not. In fact, this title belongs to the volcano Chimborazo in Ecuador. This is because the Earth rotates in space and is flattened. The point at the equator is farther from the center of the Earth than the poles. And Chimborazo is very close to the equator of the Earth.
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    Item Reviewed: Top 10 interesting facts about volcanoes Rating: 5 Reviewed By: Bhaskar Banerjee
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