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    Monday, November 27, 2017

    25 Incredible facts about the Cosmos

    Our Universe is a unique place that a person tries to understand throughout his history. Although mankind has gone a long way in exploring outer space, more and more "cosmic" discoveries are being made every day. And it does not matter whether it's an alcohol cloud in the center of the Universe or Einstein's Relativity Theory - each such finding gives a vast field for astrophysicists to work. All this is also interesting for people whose profession is not connected with astronomy. When you read 25 incredible facts about the Cosmos, you yourself will want to go conquer outer space.

    Milky Way

    Today, after sunset, do not be lazy to look into the sky. Depending on how dark it is on the street, you will probably see several thousand stars. All these stars are in our galaxy, the Milky Way. You can even see one of the other galaxies with the naked eye, you just have to look.

    Other galaxies

    Now you will surely feel very tiny, but scientists have established that there are more hundreds of billions of galaxies in the universe, and neither of us can see without a telescope. Moreover, each of these galaxies contains billions of stars. The total number of stars in the universe is 10 quintillion, (10 with 21 zeros). It is interesting that there are more stars in the Universe than grains of sand on the whole Earth.

    Dark matter

    All the stars, galaxies and black holes in the universe are only 5% of its mass. It's amazing, but 95% of the mass is innumerable. Scientists have decided to call this mysterious substance "dark matter" and to this day no one can accurately determine its nature.

    Alcohol cloud

    Do you want to open your own bar? A better place than Sagittarius B2 you will not find. Despite the distance of 26,000 light years from Earth, this gas-dust cloud contains many billion liters of vinyl alcohol. Of course, it can not be drunk, but this organic combination is of great importance for the existence of life on Earth as a whole.

    The Nuclear Moon

    In the late 50s of the last century, a team of people called Project A119 decided that launching a nuclear missile on the Moon would be a very good solution. Why? Obviously, they hoped that this would ensure their success in the Space race. Fortunately, the plan did not materialize.

    The Illusion of Ponzo

    Have you ever noticed that when the moon is right on the horizon line, does it seem bigger? This is not true. This effect is the fruit of the imagination of our brain. Think about what happens when you see your friends on the horizon. Although you see them small, your brain refuses to perceive these dimensions. Something similar happens with the Moon. The phenomenon known as the Illusion of Ponzo is that the brain distorts the dimensions of the Moon and makes it larger than it actually is. Do not believe me? The next time you look at the enlarged moon, close everything else with your hands. You see, it will immediately decrease.

    The moon has the smell of gunpowder

    Going to the surface of the moon, the astronauts of the mission "Apollo" sensed the smell of gunpowder and insanely soft to the touch dust. Scientists have not yet determined the nature of this phenomenon, since there are two different combinations of lunar dust. It consists mostly of small particles of silicon dioxide.

    The largest diamond

    In 2004, scientists discovered the largest diamond ever recorded in the universe. In fact, it is a compact star, with a diameter of 4000 km and a core containing 10 billion trillion carats. This "diamond" is located at a distance of 50 light years from the Earth.

    The day on Venus is longer than a year

    It's strange, but Venus rotates around the Sun faster than around its axis. This means that the day on Venus lasts longer than a year. According to the "local" time, the Second World War ended only 56 days ago.

    Saturn does not sink

    Saturn is a huge planet, but if you put it in a container of water, it will float to the surface. The density of Saturn is 0.687 g / cm3, while the water is 1000 kg / m3. But, unfortunately, no one will ever see this phenomenon, since there is no container with a diameter of 120,000 km.

    Cold welding

    When two pieces of metal touch each other in outer space, they are attached to each other. While welding is usually carried out under the influence of heat, in this case the particles connect the vacuum, i. E. "cold welding" is obtained. But how then can spacecraft be in outer space? The answer is simple. Even on Earth they are covered with a layer of oxidized substance to prevent this phenomenon. So the risk that spacecraft attach to each other is extremely small.

    The Earth has more than one satellite

    This is not a question of the second Moon. Scientists have just discovered several asteroids that accompany the Earth during its movement around the Sun.

    Space debris

    More than 8000 objects rotate around the Earth. Most are classified as "space debris" or debris left by spacecraft and missions in the past.

    Movement of the Moon

    Each year the Moon shifts by 3.8 cm farther from the Earth. As a consequence, during the last century the Earth's rotation slowed by 0.002 seconds every day.

    The rays of the sun on your skin are 30 000 years old

    Most of us know that light reaches the Earth in 8 minutes, overcoming 93 million miles between our skin and the surface of the Sun. But did you know that the energy of these rays originated more than 30,000 years ago deep in the solar core? They were formed due to an intense reaction to the fusion and spent most of the time paving the way for the surface of the Sun.

    The Big Bucket is not a constellation

    In fact, this is asterism. In the night sky there are only 88 official constellations, and everything else, including the Big Dipper, falls under another category. Despite this, it includes 7 brightest stars of the constellation Ursa Major.

    Constant motion

    You are standing on a Planet that rotates around its axis and around the Sun. The sun in turn revolves around the center of the Galaxy and it all moves in the Cosmos. You already felt dizzy, right? Before you make a sad grimace, read the following paragraph.

    Special Galilean Theory of Relativity

    How do you determine that the bus that takes you to work is actually moving? What if you are sitting in a single static object in the universe, and everything else, including the road under the wheels, is moving? The truth is that it is impossible to prove what is moving and what is not. Everything belongs to the boundaries of your understanding. For you, the man in the aisle is static, since your understanding is limited to the bus. For a person from the sidewalk, both of you are moving at a speed of 60 km / h on traffic, since the limit of his understanding is the whole Earth. Let's go further and move to the next point ...

    Speed ​​of light

    Let's return to the example with the bus. If you release an arrow from a window into a target standing on the road ahead of you, how fast will it move? In fact, the speed will be approximately equal to the speed of the bus - about 60 km / h - plus how fast you fire the arrow. And what if I just shine on the target? Since light travels at a speed of 186,000 miles per second, will we simply add 60 km / h? No. Scientists have proved that the speed of light is the same always, regardless of the conditions. Which brings us to the next point ...

    Cosmic speed limit

    It was mentioned above that the speed of light can not exceed 186,000 miles per second. As a result, such a notion as the "cosmic limit of speed" was derived. This has some interesting consequences and leads us straight to ...

    The theory of relativity of Einstein

    Albert Einstein derived a revolutionary theory that applies not only to movement, but also to time. In fact, these concepts are related to each other. The faster you move, the slower this time will be perceived by others. Why? Imagine this situation. You sit in the bus and shine with a flashlight on the opposite wall. For example, in one second the beam covers 2 meters before reaching the other side of the bus. And now let's look at it from the point of view of a person on the street. For him, the bus moves the same way, but the beam of light covers 15 meters at the same second. Why is this strange? Think about it. We have an object that has just passed 12 meters more in the same period of time. But he moved at a similar speed ... The only logical explanation for what a person sees from the street is that the ray of light seems longer to him. This means that while for you this or that event passes in one second, for it it passes for two. For them, the clock ticks more slowly. While scientists considered this to be nonsense and tried to avoid discussing this topic, Einstein derived his theory. Still do not believe it? That's why we move on to ...

    Movement of the clock

    Everything that we are talking about is very important for modern technologies. Modern designers of watches in on-board computers and navigation equipment should take into account the theory of relativity. For example, if you look at the fighter pilot's clock, you'll find that they lag behind yours for a few nanoseconds.

    Add one nanosecond to life

    Remember school physics lessons? Gravity increases near the surface of the Earth, and acceleration leads to a slowdown in time. This is very important for modern society, because at different altitudes the clock is ticking at different speeds. Also, you must remember that, as the Earth rotates, someone standing near the equator moves faster than someone on the North Pole. And his watch also goes slower.

    The Gemini Paradox

    The famous Gemini Paradox is that if one twin is put in a spacecraft moving at a speed close to the speed of light in space and leaving another on Earth, then according to the theory of relativity, a twin in a spaceship will return to Earth much younger than its "Earthly" brother.

    Black holes

    Once these intergalactic vacuums were supermassive stars. When she dies from such stars, her gaseous outer layers are "blown away", and the nucleus turns into an extremely small and dense sphere. Imagine, for example, an attempt to raise a tennis ball whose mass is equal to the mass of the Sun. For such an astronomically high density, a strong gravitational field will be required. In order to get rid of any gravitational field, you need to travel faster than with space velocity. The spacecraft manages to reach a speed of 7 miles per second. To overcome some black holes, it would have to move at a speed greater than 186,000 miles per second. - that exceeds its cosmic limit. This means that nothing, not even light, can pass through a black hole.
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