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    Monday, November 27, 2017

    10 things you need to know about the planet Venus

    1. Venus is only slightly smaller than the Earth.
    2. Venus is the second planet close to the Sun, located at a distance of about 108 million km (67 million miles) or 0.72 AU.
    3. The day on Venus lasts about 243 terrestrial days (the time Venus needs to complete one complete revolution around its axis). Venus makes one complete revolution around the Sun (a year on Venus) for 225 terrestrial days.
    4. Venus is a hard planet, also known as an earth-type planet. The hard surface of Venus is strongly cratered and has a volcanic landscape.
    5. The dense and toxic atmosphere of Venus consists mainly of carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen (N2), with clouds of sulfuric acid (H2SO4).
    6. Venus does not have satellites.
    7. There is no ring around Venus.
    8. More than 40 spacecraft explored Venus. Mission Magellan arrived in the orbit of Venus in the 1990s and displayed about 98 percent of the planet's surface.
    9. There is no evidence of life on Venus. The very high temperatures on the planet, reaching almost 480 degrees Celsius (900 degrees Fahrenheit) are an obvious obstacle to life in the form in which we know it.
    10. Venus rotates in the opposite direction (retrograde rotation), in comparison with other planets. This means that the Sun on Venus rises in the west and sets in the east.

    The history of the discovery of the planet Venus

    In ancient times, Venus was then thought to be two different stars: the evening star and the morning star - that is, those that appeared at sunset and sunrise.
    What does the name "Venus" mean?

    Planet Venus - the second planet from the Sun, is named after the ancient Roman goddess of love and beauty. An interesting fact about the planet: Venus - the only planet named after a woman, perhaps, was named for the most beautiful deity, because it radiated a brighter light than all of the five planets known to ancient astronomers. In Latin, the planet Venus was known as the Evening Star and Lucifer. In Christian times, Lucifer or "easy messenger" was known as Satan.
    Features of the planet Venus

    Venus and Earth are often called twins, because they are similar in size, mass, density, composition and gravity. However, the similarities end here.

    An interesting fact: Venus is the hottest planet in the solar system and the second from Soltz, after Mercury. Although Venus is not the closest planet to the Sun, its dense atmosphere, the so-called heat trap, creates a greenhouse effect that also heats the Earth. As a result, the temperature on Venus can reach 870 degrees Fahrenheit (465 degrees Celsius), which is more than enough to melt hot lead. Probes that scientists planted there, remained unscathed only for several hours, after which they were destroyed.

    Venus has an infernal atmosphere, consisting mainly of carbon dioxide and sulfuric acid clouds, more recently, scientists have discovered traces of some water in the atmosphere. The atmosphere here is heavier than that of any other planet, which leads to a pressure exceeding the Earth's 90 times.

    Proven fact: the surface of Venus is extremely dry. There is no liquid (water) on its surface, because the heat makes it boil completely. Approximately two-thirds of the surface of Venus is covered by flat, smooth plains in which thousands of volcanoes are present, ranging from 0.5 to 150 miles (0.8 to 240 kilometers) wide, with lava flows curving up to 3,000 miles (5,000 kilometers) in length .

    Six mountain regions make up about one-third of the surface of Venus. One mountain range, called Maxwell, reaches about 540 miles (870 km) in length and up to 7 miles (11.3 km) in height, making it the tallest on the planet.

    The second planet from the Sun - Venus also has a number of surface features that distinguish it from the surface of the Earth. For example, Venus has so-called "crowns", or "crowns" - annular structures that range from about 95 to 360 miles (155 to 580 km) wide. Scientists believe that they formed when the hot material under the surface crust surged, deforming the surface of the planet. Venus also has "mosaics" or "tiles" - elevated areas in which there are many mountain ranges and valleys that have formed in different directions.

    Not only conditions on Venus are infernal. The ancient name of Venus is "Lucifer". This name does not carry any diabolical connotations, but Lucifer means "a harbinger of light," and when Venus is seen from Earth, then its light is brighter than the light of any other planet or even any star in the night sky because of its high reflectivity of clouds and its proximity to our planet.

    Venus spends 243 full earth days in order to complete the entire axis, which makes it the slowest of the planets. Because of this slow rotation, its metal core is not capable of producing a magnetic field similar to the Earth's.

    When viewed from above, while most planets rotate around their axis, Venus rotates in the opposite direction. While on Earth the Sun begins to rise in the East and sits in the West, then on Venus, the Sun will rise in the West and land in the East.

    A year on Venus - the time it takes to rotate around the sun - lasts about 225 Earth days. At the same time, Venus needs 243 earth days, complete a complete revolution around its axis, which means that the days on Venus are longer than the years. However, due to the peculiar retrograde rotation of Venus, the time from one sunrise to the next is approximately 117 terrestrial days.

    Composition of the planet Venus

    96.5 percent - carbon dioxide, 3.5 percent - nitrogen, with a small amount of sulfur dioxide, argon, water, carbon monoxide, helium and neon.
    The magnetic field of Venus

    The magnetic field of Venus is 0.000015 times greater than the field of the Earth (ie, less than the Earth's).

    The internal structure of Venus

    The metal iron core of Venus is approximately 2,400 miles (6,000 kilometers) wide. The cast rocky mantle of Venus is about 1,200 miles (3,000 kilometers) thick. The surface crust of Venus is basically basalt, according to various estimates, from 6 to 12 miles (10 to 20 kilometers) in thickness.

    The uppermost layer of clouds of the second planet from the Sun - Venus flies the entire planet for four Earth days. These clouds are controlled by winds of hurricane force, overcoming about 224 miles (360 kilometers) per hour. This, so-called, super-rotation of the planetary atmosphere is about 60 times faster than the planet Venus itself rotates, and this, perhaps, is one of the most interesting facts of Venus. The winds on the surface of the planet are much slower, their speed is about a few miles per hour.

    The space ship Venus Express, led by the European Space Agency, in 2005 found intriguing evidence of the existence of lightning on the planet. These zippers are unique. Unlike lightning on other planets in the solar system, on which they exist, lightning on Venus is not associated with the presence of water in the clouds. Instead, on Venus, lightning is caused by clouds of sulfuric acid.

    Scientists are seriously concerned about these electrical discharges, since they can break molecules into fragments that can then be combined with other fragments in the most unpredictable manner.

    Unusual bands in the upper clouds of Venus are called "blue absorbers" or "ultraviolet absorbers", because they strongly absorb light at the blue and ultraviolet wavelengths. They absorb a huge amount of energy - almost half the total solar energy absorbed by the planet. Also, they seem to play a major role in preserving the hellish appearance of Venus. Their exact composition is still unknown.

    Satellites and rings of the planet Venus

    Venus has no moons or rings.

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